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Open Access Models, Article Processing Charges, Archiving, and Preprints for Researchers

By Sridhar Gutam | Aug. 28, 2023  | Open access

Open Access (OA) publishing has revolutionized the way research is disseminated by providing free, unrestricted access to scholarly articles. This model eliminates subscription and payment barriers, enabling global access to research outputs. The primary objective of OA publishing is to expedite the spread of knowledge, encourage collaboration, and stimulate innovation in the scientific community.

Exploring Open Access Publication Models:

Publishing your research in Open Access - Open access: Latest news and  trends - Subject Guides at University of Canterbury
Source: https://canterbury.libguides.com
  • Green Open Access: In this alternative, authors deposit their manuscript versions into repositories or institutional archives. Depending on embargo periods, these manuscripts become publicly accessible. Repositories like arXiv support this approach by hosting preprints and postprints.
  • Gold Open Access: Under this model, authors or their institutions pay Article Processing Charges (APCs) to publishers. These charges cover peer review, editing, and publication costs, making articles openly available to all. These journals are often referred to as 'author pays' journals.
  • Hybrid Open Access: In this model, journals offer authors the choice to make their articles freely accessible to the public (OA) by paying an APC, while other content remains behind a subscription paywall.
  • Diamond Open Access: Also known as Platinum OA; provides free public access to research articles without any costs for readers or authors (no APCs). Funding from institutions, societies or organizations usually covers publishing expenses.

Article Processing Charges

Certain Gold OA journals require authors to pay APCs to facilitate open availability. Although options for (partial) funding and waivers exist, this model remains unaffordable for many. To bridge this gap, innovative funding models have emerged that aim to alleviate APCs, especially for researchers from low- and middle-income countries. Addressing affordability is an ongoing effort to ensure equitable access to OA publishing. Researchers should factor in funding availability, institutional backing, and journal-specific APC policies when selecting a publication venue.

While a journal's impact factor is important, it shouldn't be the sole selection criterion.

Factors Influencing APCs

APC rates vary across disciplines, publishers, and journals. Several factors link journal metrics to higher APCs such as journal prestige, market dynamics, and business models, It is seen that high impact-factor journals charge more owing to their reputation. Higher demand permits high-impact journals to charge more, while profit-centric publishers may levy higher APCs. Authors must judiciously assess their resources and explore OA journals with reasonable APCs. While a journal's impact factor is important, it shouldn't be the sole selection criterion. Consideration of various factors ensures informed decisions that contribute to a diverse research landscape.

Predatory journals charge authors fees for publication without proper quality control.

Recognizing Questionable Journals

Questionable journals, also known as 'predatory journals', are deceptive publications that exploit the OA and 'author pays' models. They charge authors fees for publication without proper quality control. They lack genuine peer review, promise fast publication, and often have low standards. These journals prioritize profit over peer review and academic integrity. These journals often use misleading names and aggressively solicit submissions. Researchers should carefully evaluate potential target journals to avoid falling into these unethical traps. For valuable guidance on making informed publication decisions, authors can refer to the website thinkchecksubmit.org. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), a comprehensive and distinctive database of OA journals worldwide, can be consulted to choose and publish articles.

Choosing Publication Platforms

When choosing appropriate publishing platforms, it's critical to consider several key factors. Start by defining your target audience for proper alignment. Thoroughly assess potential journals by examining their reputation and quality through editorial boards and peer-review processes. Evaluate your work's and your target journal's potential impact, readership, citations, and collaboration opportunities. Financial aspects, including funding for APCs, matter. Review journal policies regarding copyright, openness, and licensing. Preprints provide a platform for sharing work in progress to gather peer feedback. Seeking advice from mentors and understanding a journal's stance on preprints and revisions are valuable. These considerations together ensure an informed publishing choice that upholds integrity and maximizes research impact.

Thomas Shafee/Wikipedia
Wikipedia/Thomas Shafee

Preprints: Accelerating Early Dissemination

Preprints provide a means to swiftly share research prior to formal peer review, allowing researchers to receive early feedback. Platforms like bioRxiv and arXiv facilitate preprint sharing. Advantages include rapid dissemination, transparency, and feedback collection. However, concerns like lack of peer review and variable quality control should be approached cautiously. Responsible use involves transparently labelling preprints, citing them appropriately, and contributing to discussions for quality enhancement.

AmeliCA - Diamond OA: Liberating Knowledge Dissemination

Diamond open access - Wikipedia

AmeliCA (Latin American Initiative for Open Access) is a collaborative effort involving academic institutions, libraries, and organizations in Latin America. It aims to promote OA to scholarly research and challenge the dominant commercial publishing models. AmeliCA advocates for Diamond OA, where research is freely accessible to everyone and costs are covered by institutions rather than individual authors or readers. The AmeliCA–Redalyc initiative, supported by UNESCO, focuses on empowering knowledge dissemination and enhancing research visibility in the Global South.


OA publishing holds immense potential for advancing research accessibility and collaboration. By understanding the diverse OA models, considering funding options, avoiding predatory journals, and making informed decisions on publication platforms, researchers contribute to a vibrant and ethically sound research landscape. Through responsible use of preprints and exploration of Diamond OA, the scientific community can truly embrace the ethos of open knowledge sharing.

Sridhar Gutam is a senior scientist at ICAR–IIHR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research–Indian Institute of Horticultural Research), Bengaluru, and the Convenor of Open Access India. He can be reached on X (formerly Twitter) at @SridharGutam or via email at gutam2000@gmail.com.

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